Cancer

Headlines

  • More than 4 out of 10 cancers could be prevented by lifestyle changes. Smoking is the largest single preventable cause of cancer each year, followed by excess bodyweight.
  • In Wakefield fewer cases of colorectal cancer are detected through screening than the England average, but more cases of breast cancer are detected through screening. The majority of lung cancer cases were detected through managed referrals and emergency detection; following the national pattern. 73% of prostate cancer cases were detected through managed referrals.
  • The risk of getting cancer, and dying from cancer increases with age.
  • Around 2,000 new Cancers are diagnosed each year in Wakefield.
  • In Wakefield the rate of new cancers diagnosed (incidence rate) is significantly higher than the England average (647.8 compared to 614.8 per 100,000 in 2012-14).
  • The most common causes of cancer diagnosed in Wakefield are lung cancer (325 new cases each year), breast cancer (250 new cases each year), prostate cancer (250 new cases each year) and colorectal cancer (215 new cases each year).
  • Cancer is the single biggest cause of early death; more than a third of premature deaths in Wakefield are caused by cancer.
  • Wakefield has significantly higher rates than England of premature deaths from cancer, 156.1 per 100,000 compared to 138.8 (2013-15).
  • Preventable cancer deaths in those aged under 75 are significantly higher in Wakefield than England, 94.7 per 100,000 compared to 81.1 (2013-15).
  • The most common causes of cancer death in Wakefield are lung cancer (240 deaths each year), colorectal cancer (85 deaths each year), prostate cancer (60 deaths each year) and breast cancer (55 deaths each year).
  • Survival rates are improving, but are generally lower in Wakefield than the England average.
  • There are inequalities in cancer; incidence rates and death rates are generally higher in the more deprived areas.

The population

Cancer can affect anyone at any age; however the risk of getting cancer (incidence), and of dying from cancer (mortality) increases with age.

Although the risk of getting cancer, and of dying from cancer increases with age, cancer is the single biggest cause of early death in Wakefield. A death is considered to be early or premature if it occurs before the age of 75. More than a third of premature deaths in Wakefield are caused by cancer.

Almost half (48%) of new cancer cases diagnosed in Wakefield are in people aged 70 and over (2012-2014); cancer incidence rates are highest in older men (aged 80 and over). The majority of deaths from cancer (64%) are in those aged 70 and over (2012-14); cancer death rates are highest in men aged 80 and over.

The burden

Cancer diagnosis

Early diagnosis of cancer means there is an improved chance of survival, it maximizes the chance of a positive outcome. The main routes to diagnosis of cancer are:

  • Detected through screening (more information about screening can be found on our screening page).
  • GP referrals or a referral from another health professional (managed detection).
  • Emergency detection.

Cancer screening programmes aim to improve outcomes through early diagnosis, before the disease is symptomatic. Information on the cancer screening programmes in Wakefield can be found by visiting our screening page.

GP referrals, or referrals from other health professionals tend to be cancers that are symptomatic; a patient has started to experience signs or symptoms. Managed detection includes two week wait cancer referrals, these are urgent referrals from a GP to be seen by a specialist within two weeks. Generally cancers detected through this route will be more advanced than those detected through screening.

Emergency detected cancers are those detected when a patient requires emergency treatment. Patients may not have experienced signs or symptoms, or may not have sought medical advice. Cancers detected through this route will generally be more advanced than those detected through GP referrals and screening.

In Wakefield fewer cases of colorectal cancer were detected through screening than the England average, more cases were detected through managed referrals and emergency presentation.

More breast cancer cases were detected through screening in Wakefield than the England average, but more cases were also detected through emergency presentation.

The majority of lung cancer cases were detected through managed referrals and emergency detection; this follows the national pattern.

More than 73% of prostate cancer cases in Wakefield were detected through managed referrals, this is similar to the England pattern. Significantly fewer cases were detected through emergency presentation.

The dashboard below shows the route to diagnosis for the main causes of cancer, compared to the England average. You can use the interactive dashboard to look at different cancer types and to select other areas to compare to.


Source: ncin.org.uk

New diagnoses – Incidence

Cancer incidence is a new case of cancer, it is counted once when the cancer is diagnosed. Around 2,000 new tumours are diagnosed each year in Wakefield. The most common cancer diagnosed is lung cancer, with around 325 new cases. There are around 250 new cases of breast cancer, 250 new cases of prostate cancer, and 210 new cases of colorectal cancer each year.

The incidence of all cancer in Wakefield is significantly higher than the England average (648.8 per 100,000 compared to 614.8); this has been the trend since 2008-2010.

The incidence of luekaemia, bladder, stomach and lung cancer is significantly higher in Wakefield than England; incidence of skin cancer and non Hodgkin’s lymphoma is significantly lower (in persons of all ages). In women of all ages, the incidence of bladder, kidney and stomach cancer in Wakefield is significantly higher than England; skin and breast cancer incidence is significantly lower. In men of all ages in Wakefield all malignant neoplasms, leukaemia, stomach and lung cancer incidence is significantly higher.

The dashboards below show cancer incidence rates in Wakefield, compared to the England average. The England average is shown as a black dot on the bar. You can use the interactive dashboard to look at different time periods and genders.


Source: Cancerdata.nhs.uk


Source: Cancerdata.nhs.uk

 

Cancer survival

Survival rates give an indication of early diagnosis and successful service provision. Generally survival rates are improving, however they vary for different cancer sites. For example in Wakefield for breast cancer, one year survival rate is 94.9% and for lung cancer it’s 34.4% (for individuals diagnoses in 2014 and followed up in 2015). Although survival rates are improving, they are generally lower in Wakefield district than the England average, for breast and lung cancer one year survival rates are significantly lower.

The dashboard below shows one year survival rates for the main causes of cancer, compared to the England average. You can use the interactive dashboard to look at different cancer types.


Source: Office for National Statistics

Mortality

Not everyone diagnosed with cancer dies from cancer, as shown in the survival section above.  Those diagnosed with cancer who are thought to be in the last 12 months of their life will receive end of life care.  More information on end of life care can be found here.

There are around 920 deaths from cancer each year in Wakefield; the all age death rate from all cancers is significantly higher than the England average (313.7 per 100,000 compared to 282.4). The death rate from all cancers, for all ages has been significantly higher in Wakefield since 2008-2010.

Lung cancer causes the largest number of deaths, with around 240 deaths each year. Colorectal cancer causes the second largest number of deaths, with around 85 deaths a year, however the death rate from colorectal cancer is not significantly higher than the England average (28.8 per 100,000 compared to 27.6).

The dashboards below show cancer death rates in Wakefield, compared to the England average. The England average is shown as a black dot on the bar. You can use the interactive dashboard to look at different time periods and genders.


Source: Cancerdata.nhs.uk


Source: Cancerdata.nhs.uk

Premature Mortality

Wakefield has significantly higher rates of premature deaths compared to England. A death is considered to be premature if it happens before the age of 75 years. During the period 2013-15 there were around 460 premature deaths from cancer each year; the premature death rate is 156.1 per 100,000, significantly higher than England 138.8.


Source: Public Health England

Risk factors

It is estimated that more than 4 out of 10 cancers in the UK could be prevented by lifestyle changes. Cancer Research UK provides a summary of statistics on preventable cancers; it identifies smoking as the largest single preventable cause of cancer each year, followed by excess bodyweight. Information on the prevalence of risk factors in Wakefield can be found by visiting the sections below:

The inequality

The burden of cancer is not equal in Wakefield; there are more deaths from cancer in the more deprived areas, and cancer incidence rates are highest in the most deprived areas.

The interactive dashboards below can be used to explore inequalities in cancer, by ward and by age groups.


Source: Local Health


Source: Local Health


Source: Cancerdata.nhs.uk


Source: Cancerdata.nhs.uk

Service Provision

Section currently under construction, to be updated shortly

Community assets

The interactive map below can be used to show the location of different community assets.

Resources

Further resources to be added

Cancer Patient Experience Survey 2016
Local Cancer Intelligence profiles; search for NHS Wakefield CCG
Cancer data dashboard
Routes to diagnosis

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